Jeep Willys

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Jeep Willys
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The Willys MB U.S. Army Jeep (formally the Truck, 1/4 ton, 4×4) and the Ford GPW were manufactured from 1941 to 1945. These small four-wheel drive utility vehicles are considered the iconic World War II Jeep, and inspired many similar light utility vehicles. Over the years, the World War II Jeep later evolved into the "CJ" civilian Jeep. Its counterpart in the German army was the Volkswagen Kübelwagen, first prototyped in 1938, also based on a small automobile, but which used an air-cooled engine and was not four-wheel drive.

Contents

Even though the world had seen widespread mechanisation of the military during World War I, and the United States Army had already used four-wheel drive trucks in it, supplied by the Four Wheel Drive Auto Co. (FWD), by the time World War II was dawning, the United States Department of War were still seeking a light, cross-country reconnaissance vehicle.
As tensions were heightening around the world in the late 1930s, the U.S. Army asked American automobile manufacturers to tender suggestions to replace its existing, aging light motor vehicles, mostly motorcycles and sidecars but also some Ford Model Ts.[2][3] This resulted in several prototypes being presented to army officials, such as five Marmon-Herrington 4×4 Fords in 1937, and three Austin roadsters by American Bantam in 1938 (Fowler, 1993). However, the U.S. Army’s requirements were not formalized until July 11, 1940, when 135 U.S. automotive manufacturers were approached to submit a design conforming to the army’s specifications for a vehicle the World War II technical manual TM 9-803 described as "… a general purpose, personnel, or cargo carrier especially adaptable for reconnaissance or command, and designated as 1/4-ton 4×4 Truck."

Marmon-Herrington converted Ford 1/2 ton truck, sometimes called the "Grandfather of the Jeep"

By now the war was under way in Europe, so the Army’s need was urgent and demanding[citation needed]. Bids were to be received by July 22, a span of just eleven days. Manufacturers were given 49 days to submit their first prototype and 75 days for completion of 70 test vehicles. The Army’s Ordnance Technical Committee specifications were equally demanding: the vehicle would be four-wheel drive, have a crew of three on a wheelbase of no more than 75 (later 80) inches and tracks no more than 47 inches, feature a fold-down windshield, 660 lb payload and be powered by an engine capable of 85 ft·lb (115 N·m) of torque. The most daunting demand, however, was an empty weight of no more than 1,300 lb (590 kg).

Only two companies entered: American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland Motors. Though Willys-Overland was the low bidder, Bantam received the bid, being the only company committing to deliver a pilot model in 49 days and production examples in 75. Under the leadership of designer Karl Probst, Bantam built their first prototype, dubbed the "Blitz Buggy" (and in retrospect "Old Number One"), and delivered it to the Army vehicle test center at Camp Holabird, Maryland on September 23, 1940. This presented Army officials with the first of what eventually evolved into the World War II U.S. Army Jeeps: the Willys MB and Ford GPW.

The Bantam no.1 ‘Blitz Buggy’

Since Bantam did not have the production capacity or fiscal stability to deliver on the scale needed by the War Department, the other two bidders, Ford and Willys, were encouraged to complete their own pilot models for testing. The contract for the new reconnaissance car was to be determined by trials. As testing of the Bantam prototype took place from September 27 to October 16, Ford and Willys technical representatives present at Holabird were given ample opportunity to study the vehicle’s performance. Moreover, in order to expedite production, the War Department forwarded the Bantam blueprints to Ford and Willys, claiming the government owned the design. Bantam did not dispute this move due to its precarious financial situation. By November 1940, Ford and Willys each submitted prototypes to compete with the Bantam in the Army’s trials. The pilot models, the Willys Quad and the Ford Pygmy, turned out very similar to each other and were joined in testing by Bantam’s entry, now evolved into a Mark II called the BRC 60. By then the U.S. and its armed forces were already under such pressure that all three cars were declared acceptable and orders for 1,500 units per company were given for field testing. At this time it was acknowledged the original weight limit (which Bantam had ignored) was unrealistic, and it was raised to 2,160 pounds (980 kg).

For these respective pre-production runs, each vehicle received revisions and a new name. Bantam’s became the BRC 40, and the company ceased motor vehicle production after the last one was built in December 1941. After reducing the vehicle’s weight by 240 pounds, Willys’ changed the designation to "MA" for "Military" model "A". The Fords went into production as "GP", with "G" for a "Government" type contract and "P" commonly used by Ford to designate any passenger car with a wheelbase of 80 inches.[4]

Willys MA jeep at the Desert Training Center, Indio, California, June 1942

Willys MB used by former Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay

By July 1941, the War Department desired to standardize and decided to select a single manufacturer to supply them with the next order for another 16,000 vehicles. Willys won the contract mostly due to its more powerful engine (the "Go Devil") which soldiers raved about, and its lower cost and silhouette. The design features the Bantam and Ford entries had which were an improvement over Willys’ were then incorporated into the Willys car, moving it from an "A" designation to "B", thus the "MB" nomenclature. Most notable was a flat wide hood, adapted from Ford GP.

By October 1941, it became apparent Willys-Overland could not keep up with production demand and Ford was contracted to produce them as well. The Ford car was then designated GPW, with the "W" referring to the "Willys" licensed design. During World War II, Willys produced 363,000 Jeeps and Ford some 280,000. Approximately 51,000 were exported to the U.S.S.R. under the Lend-Lease program.

A further 13,000 (roughly) amphibian jeeps were built by Ford under the name GPA (nicknamed ‘Seep’ for Sea Jeep). Inspired by the larger DUKW, the vehicle was produced too quickly and proved to be too heavy, too unwieldy, and of insufficient freeboard. In spite of participating successfully in the Sicily landings (July 1943) most GPAs were routed to the U.S.S.R. under the Lend-Lease program. The Soviets were sufficiently pleased with its ability to cross rivers to develop their own version of it after the war, the GAZ-46.
Origin of the term "jeep"[edit]

Main article: The origin of the term "jeep"

One account of the origin of the term "jeep" begins when the prototypes were being proven at military bases. The term "jeep" was used by Army mechanics for any untried or untested vehicles.[5]
Although most likely due to a bastardization of the acronym "GP", used to designate the vehicle, another likely factor in the popularization of the jeep name came from the fact that the vehicle made quite an impression on soldiers at the time, so much so that they informally named it after Eugene the Jeep, a character in the Popeye comic strip and cartoons created by E. C. Segar as early as mid-March of 1936. Eugene the Jeep was Popeye’s "jungle pet" and was "small, able to move between dimensions and could solve seemingly impossible problems."
In early 1941, Willys-Overland staged a press event in Washington, D.C., having the car demonstrate its prowess by driving up the Capitol steps. Irving "Red" Hausmann, a test driver on the Willys development team who had accompanied the car for its testing at Camp Holabird, had heard soldiers there referring to it as a jeep. He was enlisted to go to the event and give a demonstration ride to a group of dignitaries, including Katherine Hillyer, a reporter for the Washington Daily News. When asked by the reporter, Hausmann too called it a Jeep. Hillyer’s article appeared in the newspaper on February 20, 1941, with a photo showing a jeep going up the Capitol steps and a caption including the term ‘jeep’. This is believed to be the most likely cause of the term being fixed in public awareness. Even though Hausmann did not create or invent the word Jeep, he very well could be the one most responsible for its first news media usage.

Photostat facsimile of the 1941 article

Photostat facsimile of Red Hausmann’s jeep being demonstrated for the reporter

Willys MB (US Army)

Willys in a museum

Grille[edit]

Willys made its first 25,000 MB Jeeps with a welded flat iron "slat" radiator grille. It was Ford who first designed and implemented the now familiar and distinctive stamped, slotted steel grille into its cars, which was lighter, used fewer resources, and was less costly to produce. Along with many other design features innovated by Ford, this was adopted by Willys and implemented into the standard World War II Jeep by April 1942.

Today, Jeep makers proudly retain the automobile’s historical connection to the visage of its predecessors by using a trademarked grille featuring a standard number of vertical openings or ‘slots’. However, in order to be able to get theirs trademarked, Willys gave their post-war jeeps seven slots instead of Ford’s nine-slot design. Through a series of corporate take-overs and mergers, AM General Corporation ended up with the rights to use the seven-slot grille as well, which they in turn extended to Chrysler when it acquired American Motors Corporation, then manufacturer of Jeep, in 1987.

Postwar

After the war Ford unsuccessfully sued Willys for the rights to the term "Jeep", leaving Willys with full rights to the name.[6] From 1945 onwards, Willys took its four-wheel drive vehicle to the public with its CJ (Civilian Jeep) versions, making these the first mass-produced 4×4 civilian vehicles. In 1948, US Federal Trade Commission agreed with American Bantam, that the idea of creating the Jeep was originated and developed by the American Bantam in collaboration with some US Army officers. The commission forbade Willys from claiming directly or by implication, that it created or designed the Jeep, and allowed it only to claim, that it contributed to the development of the vehicle.[5] However, American Bantam went bankrupt by 1950, and Willys was granted the "Jeep" trademark in 1950.
The first CJs were essentially the same as the MB, except for such alterations as vacuum-powered windshield wipers, a tailgate (and therefore a side-mounted spare tire), and civilian lighting. Also, the civilian jeeps had amenities like naugahyde seats, chrome trim, and were available in a variety of colors. Mechanically, a heftier T-90 transmission replaced the Willys MB’s T84 in order to appeal to the originally considered rural buyers demographic.
Willys-Overland and its successors, Willys Motors and Kaiser Jeep supplied the U.S. military as well as many allied nations with military jeeps through the late 1960s.

Dutch Army M38A1

M606 in Colombia

In 1950, the first postwar military jeep, the M38 (or MC), was launched, based on the 1949 CJ-3A. In 1953, it was quickly followed by the M38A1 (or MD), featuring an all-new "round-fendered" body in order to clear the also new, taller, Willys Hurricane engine. This jeep was later developed into the CJ-5 launched in 1955. Similarly, its ambulance version, the M170 (or MDA), featuring a 20-inch wheelbase stretch, was later turned into the civilian CJ-6.
Before the CJ-5, Willys offered the public a cheaper alternative with the taller F-head engine in the form of the CJ-3B, a CJ-3A body with a taller hood. This was quickly turned into the M606 jeep (mostly used for export, through 1968) by equipping it with the available heavy-duty options such as larger tires and springs, and by adding black-out lighting, olive drab paint, and a trailer hitch. After 1968, M606A2 and -A3 versions of the CJ-5 were created in a similar way for friendly foreign governments.

Licenses to produce CJ-3Bs were issued to manufacturers in many different countries, and some, such as the Mahindra corporation in India, continue to produce them in some form or another to this day. The French army, for instance, produced its Willys MB by buying the Willys license to enable the manufacture of their Hotchkiss M201.
The World War II Jeep inspired many imitations. Creations from competing manufacturers such as Land Rover, Toyota, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Suzuki, and a few others all owe their beginnings in the 4×4 world to the inspiration of the Willys Jeep.
The compact military jeep continued to be used in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. In Korea, it was mostly deployed in the form of the MB, as well as the M38 and M38A1 (introduced in 1952 and 1953), its direct descendants. In Vietnam, the most used jeep was the then newly designed Ford M151 MUTT, which featured such state-of-the-art technologies as a unibody construction and all around independent suspension with coil-springs. Apart from the mainstream of—by today’s standards—relatively small jeeps, an even smaller vehicle was developed for the US Marines, suitable for airlifting and manhandling, the M422 ‘Mighty Mite’.

Eventually, the U.S. military decided on a fundamentally different concept, choosing a much larger vehicle that not only took over the role of the jeep, but also replaced all other light military wheeled vehicles: the HMMWV ("Humvee").

In 1991, the Willys-Overland Jeep MB was designated an International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Image from page 1091 of “The Street railway journal” (1884)
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Identifier: streetrailwayjo291907newy
Title: The Street railway journal
Year: 1884 (1880s)
Authors:
Subjects: Street-railroads Electric railroads Transportation
Publisher: New York : McGraw Pub. Co.
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system, and has two tracks carried oneach side of an island platform. In the view of Eustonstation herewith three tunnels are shown, but that at theright is simply a siding. The engraving on this page showsa transfer table employed at the Euston terminal for shift-ing the locomotives on to the return track. A telephone signal system has been installed, in which 1074 STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXIX. No. 24. a telephone is carried on the locomotive and can be con-nected to two telephone wires, carried through the tunnel,by which the motorman can communicate with the nearestsignal booth. In addition, the tubes are supplied with elec-tric lamps, which are not normally in use, but each signal-man has instructions that when a train has been in a sec-tion for a longer period than two minutes the tunnel lampsare to be switched into circuit. Electric block signals arealso employed. The company has recently added steel cars to its equip-ment. These cars were supplied by the Brush Electrical

Text Appearing After Image:
EUSTON CROSS-(nER .\M) SlUlNl.S Engineering Company, and their principal dimensions fol-low : Length over car body, 26 ft.; width over car body,6 ft. 10 ins.; height inside car, 6 ft. 8^ ins.; total heightfrom rail to top of car, 8 ft. 4^;; ins.; wheel-base of truck,5 ft.; truck centers, 16 ft. 9 ins.; total length of five-car train,without locomotive, 160 ft.; weight of train, 37yS tons ; num-ber of seats per car, 32; weight of car per seat, 0.224 tons;weight of train per running foot, 0.284 tons. The company has recently introduced geared motors onits locomotives instead of the direct drive originally em-ployed. Westinghouse brakes are used throughout, and thetrain line and other pipes are carried on the roof. -^-♦^ PROGRAM OF NEW YORK STATE CONVENTION As already announced in this paper, the annual conven-tion of the Street Railway Association of the State of NewYork will be held at the Hotel Champlain, Lake Ghamplain,New York, on June 25 and 26. Hotel Champlain is onthe Delaware

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Berlin – Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin – Heinkel He 162 03
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Image by Daniel Mennerich
The Heinkel He 162 Volksjäger ("People’s Fighter"), the name of the project of the Emergency Fighter Program design competition, was a German single-engine, jet-powered fighter aircraft fielded by the Luftwaffe in World War II. Designed and built quickly, and made primarily of wood as metals were in very short supply and prioritised for other aircraft, the He 162 was nevertheless the fastest of the first generation of Axis and Allied jets. Volksjäger was the Reich Air Ministry’s official name for the government design program competition won by the He 162 design. Other names given to the plane include Salamander, which was the codename of its construction program, and Spatz ("Sparrow"), which was the name given to the plane by Heinkel.

The official RLM Volksjäger design competition parameters specified a single-seat fighter, powered by a single BMW 003, a slightly lower-thrust engine not in demand for either the Me 262A nor the Ar 234B front-line aircraft already in service. The main structure of the Volksjäger competing airframe designs would use cheap and unsophisticated parts made of wood and other non-strategic materials and, more importantly, could be assembled by semi- and non-skilled labor, including slave labor. Specifications included a weight of no more than 2,000 kg (4,410 lb), when most fighters of the era were twice that. Maximum speed was specified as 750 km/h at sea level, operational endurance at least a half hour, and the takeoff run no more than 500 m (1,640 ft). Armament was specified as either two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons with 100 rpg, or two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannons with 50 rpg. The Volksjäger needed to be easy to fly. Some suggested that even glider or student pilots should be able to fly the jet effectively in combat, and indeed had the Volksjägerprogramm aircraft design competition and its winning design got into full swing, that is precisely what would have happened. After the war, Ernst Heinkel would say "[The unrealistic notion that this plane [The He 162] should be a ‘people’s fighter,’ in which the Hitler Youth, after a short training regimen with clipped-wing two-seater gliders like the DFS Stummel-Habicht, could fly for the defense of Germany, displayed the unbalanced fanaticism of those days." The clipped-wingspan DFS Habicht models had varying wingspans of both 8-metre and 6-metre, used also to prepare more experienced Luftwaffe pilots for the dangerous Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet rocket fighter — the same sort of training approach would also be used for the Hitler Youth aviators chosen to fly the jet-powered Volksjäger.

The requirement was issued 10 September 1944, with basic designs to be returned within 10 days and to start large-scale production by 1 January 1945. Because the winner of the new lightweight fighter design competition would be building huge numbers of the planes, nearly every German aircraft manufacturer expressed interest in the project, such as Blohm + Voss, and Focke-Wulf, whose Volksflugzeug design contender, likewise meant for BMW 003 turbojet power bore a resemblance to their slightly later Ta 183 jet fighter design. However, Heinkel had already been working on a series of "paper projects" for light single-engine fighters over the last year under the designation P.1073, with most design work being completed by Professor Benz, and had gone so far as to build and test several models and conduct some wind tunnel testing.

Although some of the competing designs were technically superior (in particular Blohm + Voss’s P.211 submission), with Heinkel’s head start the outcome was largely a foregone conclusion. The results of the competition were announced in October 1944, only three weeks after being announced, and to no one’s surprise, the Heinkel entry was selected for production. In order to confuse Allied intelligence, the RLM chose to reuse the 8-162 designation (formerly that of a Messerschmitt fast bomber) rather than the other considered designation He 500.

Simple Guide To Achieve Success In Physical Fitness

There are a lot of pills and programs out there you can take, all promising to help you get fit, but many are as misleading as they are dangerous. Learn more about getting in shape with this article. Check out these great tips that will help you get fit without pushing you to purchase a product.

Walking is a great exercise for increasing fitness. Walking heel to toe starts that involves pushing your heels first and toes last can boost your calves’ efforts. Give your arms a workout too by power walking (bending elbows and swinging arms as you walk.)

Don’t do crunches as your sole abdominal exercise. Just one fat pound burns off for every 250,000 crunches that you complete. Therefore, you are not maximizing your time if you are strictly doing crunches. For best results, incorporate different abdominal exercises into your routine.

When working out, you need to exhale after each repetition when it comes to weightlifting. You will give your body a lot of energy and you will get more air when you breathe out.

If you feel that you are working out less, make a schedule and stick to it. Plan on working out a set number of days per week, and keep to your schedule no matter what. If missing one workout day has to happen, make sure you put a make up date on your calendar and actually do it.

Wear Clothes

Wear clothes you feel comfy in when you exercise. If you do your workouts at a gym, you may feel pressure to wear fashionable workout gear, but try not to succumb to that pressure. Wear clothes that you can easily move around in without feeling embarrassed. Proper clothing can help you retain focus on the fitness aspects instead of what you’re wearing.

If you want to shed pounds, make your exercise routine more dense. What this means is that you should include more activities in a smaller time period in order to see better results. Shortening the breaks between exercise intervals or removing them entirely will result in “denser” exercises. This is a great way to increase weight loss.

If you want to get fit and stay hip, do the dip. They focus exertion on the triceps, chest area, as well as the shoulders. There are quite a few ways to approach them too. You can do gravity-assisted dips by doing them between two appropriately-positioned benches. You can even add weight when doing dips.

Remember that too much exercise can do more harm than good. One good thing to do is to keep track of what your pulse is each morning after working out.

Lift Weights

To increase the effectiveness of your running routine, lift weights. This is why some runners should consider lifting weights. Studies show that those runners that lift weights regularly can run farther and faster without getting tired.

If you have experienced an injury you should be back in the swing of things as soon as possible. Gently working out your injured muscles will help them recover faster. When you participate in light exercises, it will help stretch your injured muscles, and will pump more blood along with oxygen to the injury.

Don’t overwhelm yourself when you start an exercise routine. If you have been out of the exercise game for a while, you need to ease gently into fitness again. The muscles in your body are used to being stagnant but you can avoid injury by ramping upwards in your workouts slowly.

When trying to get physically fit, it is best to steer clear of those questionable or even dangerous fitness routines or products on the market. A fit and healthy body entails a lot more than simply dropping a few pounds. Use the tips you’ve taken from here today and get your lifestyle transformed. The article will have you headed on the right path and it is up to you to begin.