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Cyclo-Stretch-Running (CSR)
how to become a fitness instructor
Image by timtak
In brief
1) Buy a bike and cycle, fast, and get fairly, medium-build, fit
2) Enroll in a fun run of your choice
3) Stretch your legs for about 15mins a week and a hour on the day using a hard stretch routine such as a karate warm up routine
4) Beat lots of runners in the fun run, and feel good about cycling some more.
5) Keep doing 1- 4 because your knees and achilles tendons won’t get worn out

You may have heard of "Chi-Running," ("A Revolutionary Approach to Effortless, Injury-Free Running"). Forget it. Cyclo-Stretch Running (CSR) is a technique of running, fast, that cuts out the running almost entirely! Last weekend I recorded a personal best 10km run of 41 minutes 29 seconds without having run more than once in the previous year. At my age level (48) 41:29 is pretty fast, so I felt I should share the good news.

Taking part in a local fun run is motivating. A lot of people take up running precisely because they can take part in a local ‘marathon’ or shorter event. Hundreds of people turn up, so you can be confident of running with other people. You will feel the competitive heat, and enjoy the adrenalin rush whether you run 10k in sub 40 minutes (as serious runners do) or take more than one hour. With all those people running, there will be plenty of supporters and even, or especially, the person coming in last will get a cheer.

The problem is that running, especially on a road, is hard on the legs, especially the Achilles tendons and knees. It is okay if you are as thin as a runner, but if you work in an office the chances are you are not built like Mo Farah or Martin Rees.

This means that carrying on a "normal," fairly sedentary 21st century lifestyle and taking part in fun-runs, in the plural, is quite difficult. Sooner or later you are going to get injured. And a lot of us, give up.

Enter the bike. Bicycle technology is just amazing these days. You can buy a performance bicycle weighing less than 9Kg for 00 or1500 Euros. That is some serious money, but it is a price that a lot of 40 somethings can afford, when their health is on the line. If you like you can think of the bike, as an ultra-high tech, and really expensive pair of running shoes. Costing between 10 and 20 times the price of running shoes, your bike will not just ‘reduce the stress of impact with the road’, but remove it completely. If the bike is made out of carbon fibre (as the Azzurri above) then it will smooth out even minor surface irregularities allowing you to glide along really fast, like you are sprinting in mid air. You will burn off the calories and flab in a flash. Cyclists do not pound the pavement, but the raise their pulse just as much, if not more than, runners. I chase cars. If you can avoid road accidents, cycling is as easy on the body as swimming. I lost 8Kg after taking up cycling and became, at the end of the summers, almost svelte.

But what about competition cycling? Here lies the problem with cycling. Competition cycling appears to me to be more than a little fraught. There are not so many "time trial" competitions where cyclists set off at intervals and cycle on their own. Most cycle races consist of a group of cyclists riding in a formation or ‘peleton’. The ability to ‘draft,’ or use the slipstream of, riders around you means that average speeds can be in excess of 35km an hour, and that includes the corners. Cornering in a formation of hot and competitive 40 something year olds is not for the faint-hearted. The sort of injuries that can be sustained in a bike race make chilblains of runners knees.

So what do you do? The no-brain answer is to cycle to keep fit, and fairly thin, by non-competitive cycling, on your own or with friends, to places you like, or on your commute, and then to take part in the occasional competitive fun run to give yourself a goal, and to prove to your spouse that all that cash spent on the latest bike equipment is money well spent.

This may seem all very well in no-brain theory but in practice there is a problem. Precisely because running is so bad for the legs, it becomes difficult to compete with runners who are either super thin, or used to the pounding their feet onto hard surfaces. You know you want to compete with runners, but at the same time you don’t want to be quite so self-destructive.

I found that after a couple of years on my bike, I could compete with runners coming in somewhere near the top 10-20% of older men but my legs would be like logs for days after a race. I took part in a 20K race and my legs turned to logs or like, stilts during the race. I was almost bedridden the following day. All to be expected, since cyclists probably do deserve legs of death, if they compete with runners, because they have not done the training suitable to the task.

Enter karate warm up stretching. The most important two things about about running fast is being fit and thin, or thin and fit. The third most important thing is being supple. If you don’t have the suppleness in your tendons your legs are going to turn to stone. Runners’ legs are supple, since not only have they warmed-up and stretched, but also they have practiced bashing their feet on tarmac over and over again. You do not need to do this. There is an easier, dare I say ‘more intelligent’, way.

I found that if I do leg stretching such as typical of karate warm-up exercises (see videos) not only before the fun run race but regularly, then this provides the suppleness that allows me to use my cyclists legs and cardiac fitness to compete with runners. Karate stretching is not the only stretch routine that would do the trick. But since karate involves a lot of high kicking, all karate practice starts with about 15 minutes of stretching pretty much all of the tendons in the legs.

It is not as if runners have special muscles. A lot of them have have legs that are so thin that they appear to have few muscles at all. Again it is not as if running is rocket science. One can impersonate a good runner’s, short, low, high-cadence, stride-style just by turning up and mimicking a runner on the day. Of course, if you do do a little bit of running (not enough to hurt yourself) before the race, or every month or two, then that will also help.

I have only just taken up (karate) stretching and I am still very stiff. If I continue with this stretching, and I am right about the theory, then by this time next year my legs will be as supple as a runners, and it seems to me that cycling gives me cardio-fitness to spare. Will I be able to make sub 40 minutes by the time I am fifty, running only yearly on race days? It is going to be exciting to find out.

Image centre above, Karate Class by Dave and Margie Hill/Kleerup

Addenda
1) I did run quite a lot, non-competitively, jogging to stay fit, till my late thirties. The above is not recommended to those that have never done any running.
2) I may have a big heart, or for reasons unknown, I have a low rest-state pulse rate, typically about 50 beats per minute when I am sitting down.
3) That said, I don’t think this about me. I cycle 6 hours or 160 km or so a week (mainly commuting). Cyclists that do distance this are generally fit and not overweight. My minor peculiarity is that I want to run, have run, do run, and also do the stretching too.
4) Cycling is not recommended to those that live in large cities. Cars may break your legs faster than running will. I do not live in a large city.
5) My legs do hurt today, two days after my 10k. I am not saying that karate stretching is going to make you float around the course. However, I have only done karate stretching about 10 times, for all of 2 and a half hours. I think that if I do continue with it, I will get a lot more supple.
6) Stretching is no fun at all. It is only because I have been accompanying my seven year old son to karate practice that, rather than just sitting and watching, I have had the motivation to join in the karate stretch routine. Without this motivational factor – my son’s karate practice – I think I would have found it very difficult to keep doing even only 15 minutes of stretching a week, weak willed person that I am.
7) It still remains to be seen whether I can really improve my running times simply by cycling and stretching. I will report back.
8) On the plus side (of CSR) while I was running two days ago, I did also do it in a sort of karate style! The karate instructor tells us to stand with knees bent, low waist and straight backed, on the balls of our feet. I felt as I was running, that I was sort of mimicking not only the runners but also karate stance, cushioning my foot-falls as a ran. In other words, I may have been really "karate-running", not just cyclo–stretch-running.
9) There is a new option now to make competitive cycling less fraught (but still dangerous): asynchronous competitive cycling as facilitated by Strava and in real-time against "ghosts" with GhostRider. BE CAREFUL.

Kanata Timeline History 2000 (part 3 of 3)
how to become a fitness instructor
Image by ianhun2009
Year 2000 (part 3 of 3)

September 1, 2000
The Kourier-Standard reported that City of Kanata provided 157 subsidized childcare spaces for families in need. Of that group, however, only six families would be affected by the new provincial government policy that, if passed, would deny daycare subsidies to RRSP holders.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 1, 2000:1.

September 1, 2000
It was reported that, for the third time in four years, high school students would have to deal with the threat of strike action by teachers and support staff. An “overwhelming” number of the 50,000 OSSTF union members had voted in favour of strike action. They were upset with the sweeping education changes outlined in Bill 74 that compelled teachers to teach more courses and forced them to volunteer for extracurricular activities.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 1, 2000:1.

September 1, 2000
It was reported that Jane Armstrong of Kanata won a gold medal won at the Canadian National Duathalon (15 km run and 40 km bike ride) Championships held in Kananaskis, a city just west of Calgary. Armstrong, who competed in the 45-49 age group, was a founding member of the Motionware Running Club.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 1, 2000:18.

September 5, 2000
Kou’s Taekwon-Do Fitness Centre, located at 100 Castlefrank Road, opened. Owner and sixth-degree black belt instructor Iat Chio Kou had been in Taekwon-do over 25 years. He began learning this ancient oriental art at the age of 10 and obtained his first-degree black belt at the age of 17.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 1, 2000:21.

September 7, 2000
The Trans Canada Relay 2000 had a rally at Shetland Park as it passed through Bridlewood. A large crowd and the sound of bagpipes greeted water carriers, with water from the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. Ben Meyer, grade 4, and Sonia Vaillant, grade 7, from W.O. Mitchell Elementary School were the ceremonial water carriers. A memorial kiosk, the “Pathway to Health,” was unveiled. Kanata Mayor Merle Nicholds, Regional Councillor Alex Munter, and MP Ian Murray spoke. Mr. Munter called the trail “a real focal point for our community. I’d like to thank Eva James for her hard work as well as everyone who made (this) very special and important occasion come about.”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 15, 2000:1.

September 8, 2000
James Gascoigne of Kanata announced that he was founding the Little Cooperative Hockey League with a goal simply to get kids playing hockey. The severe shortage of available ice time had forced the Kanata Minor Hockey Association to put over 200 children on waiting lists, the majority of whom were at the initiation and novice age levels.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 8, 2000:1.

September 8, 2000
According to regional councillor Alex Munter, the province had approved the installation of traffic lights at the Queensway-Terry Fox exit. Calling it a "Band-Aid" solution, Munter said the traffic lights will "make a dangerous section safe by allowing people exiting the Queensway from the west to safely turn left." The province will pay for the 6,000 cost.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 8, 2000:1.

September 18, 2000
The Community Resource Centre of Goulbourn, Kanata and West Carleton (CRC) held their annual general meeting and awards presentations. Mary Nute was presented with the Eva James Award for 2000 for her outstanding volunteer work. The CRC, founded in 1987, is a non-profit, charitable organization consisting of volunteers, staff, and a Board of Directors who work with local groups and agencies in developing, providing and coordinating community health and social services.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 22, 2000:1.

September 19, 2000
Kanata City Council voted to spend ,000 on an Adult Crossing Guard Pilot Program to be implemented at six intersections in Kanata in the near future. A Traffic Safety Committee report on July 13 recommended the city retain the services of Ensign Security for the administration and operation of the crossing guard program. Pentland Place resident Neil Thompson worked on the issue to get it to the Traffic Safety Committee.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 22, 2000:1.

September 25, 2000
Taggart Realty Management had a ground-breaking ceremony for its million development, The Signature Centre, with 107,000 square feet of prime retail space at the corner of Terry Fox Drive and Campeau Drive. Loblaws (Kanata Centrum) and PenEquity Management had argued against the development’s rezoning changes at the Ontario Municipal Board, but they were unsuccessful.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 22, 2000:7.

September 25, 2000
At a special meeting of Kanata City Council, Semiconductor Corporation was awarded the contract to develop what will become Kanata’s downtown core. The ten-year development plan is for about four hectares of City of Kanata land, located between Campeau Drive and Castlefrank Road, north of the Queensway. The company wanted to break ground on the land as soon as possible, however it had not yet negotiated to buy the land from the city.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 29, 2000:1.

September 29, 2000
The Community Resource Centre of Goulbourn, Kanata and West Carleton, facing a 300 per cent rent hike, announced that it would go to the Region on October 3 for funding to help build a new three-storey location at the corner of Hazeldean and Castlefrank Roads.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, September 29, 2000:1.

September 30, 2000
The City of Kanata won the 2000 National Communities in Bloom award in Edmonton. The ceremony was attended by Mayor Merle Nicholds as well as city staff. Communities in Bloom recognizes community participation in beautification, heritage and environmental awareness as part of its judging criteria. According to the mayor, "It’s the best report card Kanata could have gotten, A+… I have never been so proud of our community and staff." Alan Cameron, a landscape artist with the City, said, "It has been a most satisfying journey of many years to reach this goal. Our ‘still-to-do’ list is a long one and we look forward to building upon this wonderful achievement."
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 6, 2000:1.

October 10, 2000
Kanata City Council approved an increase in development charges for the Monahan Drain construction and land acquisition. For example, the charge for a Bridlewood detached one-family or semi-detached house rose from ,084 to ,272. A non-residential development charge in the Kanata South Business Park rose from ,589 to ,948.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 13, 2000:3.

October 13, 2000
It was reported that Nokia Networks, the leading supplier of mobile phones and fixed, mobile and IP networks, began phase one of a million expansion to their Kanata product development facility on Leggett Drive. It would accommodate the engineering, research and product marketing for Nokia’s IP security and voice products. The site would also serve as the headquarters for the North American marketing communications group.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 13, 2000:1.

October 13, 2000
It was reported that the Corel Centre would be the new home of the Syracuse Smash, a professional lacrosse franchise. A private ownership group, including Roderick Bryden as a minority owner, bought the team on September 7, 2000, and planned to move it to Kanata.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 13, 2000:28.

October 14, 2000
Kanata resident, piano teacher, singer, and songwriter Diane Elkington performed at her CD-release party at the Ron Maslin Theatre. Her first CD was entitled Quilting Bee.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 6, 2000:6.

October 15, 2000
Former and current students, teachers and staff members of St. Martin de Porres Elementary School in Glen Cairn celebrated the school’s 25 years. The day included a mass at Holy Redeemer Parish Church, celebrated by Father Paul Shepherd who was also a former student, followed by a reception at the school. There were presentations and speeches, displays, and photographs showing the history of the school.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 6, 2000:14.

October 20, 2000
It was reported that the Ontario government refused to pay for improvements to Highway 417 and the interchanges of Terry Fox and Eagleson Road. Michael Gibbs, Corridor Control Eastern Region of the provincial MTO said they would "not be responsible for highway improvements required to highways as the result of land development." These would be the responsibility of the municipality and/or developers. According to Councillor Alex Munter, “If the policy is unchanged it will choke off growth in our area and Ottawa will not only have the world’s largest skating rink … but also its longest parking lot."
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 20, 2000:1.

October 20, 2000
It was reported that Ross Archer, 64, who had been confined to a wheelchair for the last 14 years, had complained without success to the City that the barriers installed along some pathways in his Glen Cairn neighbourhood were too narrow. The pathway barrier at the corner of Sheldrake and Morton Drives presented the biggest challenge, and caused him to make a five-block detour to get to his friend’s house.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 20, 2000:3.

October 20, 2000
Anna Marie Young reported on youth vandalism in Kanata, following a meeting at City Hall called by Kanata councillor Richard Rutkowski and attended by police officers, parks and recreation staff, regional councillor Alex Munter, Mayor Merle Nicholds, representatives of the Community Resource Centre and residents. The police complained that some parents were not authority figures. "Parents are not taking ownership of their kids. Everybody wants us to come down on youth crime – but when it’s their kids they want us to handle them with kid gloves," said Detective Michel Marin of the Ottawa-Carleton Police.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 20, 2000:7.

October 21, 2000
Twenty-six penalties were called in a game between the Kanata Bantam A Blazers and their league rivals, the Goulbourn Rams. Coach Rob Knight of the Rams was pleased with his team’s performance. "There’s a good rivalry between Kanata and Goulbourn and it showed on the ice."
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 27, 2000:18.

October 27, 2000
Candidates for the November 13 municipal election were announced, including Claudette Cain and Bob Chiarelli for mayor, Jim Libbey and Mark Williams for Ottawa-Carleton District School Board trustee, Art Lamarche and Pat Gaudet-La Prairie for Ottawa-Carleton Catholic School Board trustee, and (Marie Biron) for French Catholic School Board trustee. Acclaimed were city councillor Alex Munter and French Public School Board trustee Bernard Bareilhe.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 27, 2000:6.

October 27, 2000
Ed Kruger of the Kourier-Standard reported on girls’ hockey in Kanata. Terry Atwood, the current president of the Kanata Girls Minor Hockey Association, said “This year, about 400 girls are lacing up their skates and playing in one of the 24 teams that make up the KGMHA. We don’t advertise for players. If we did, we could probably count on another 200 or more girls taking up the game. Unfortunately, we have to deal with the lack of ice time … just as the KMHA does.”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 27, 2000:16.

October 27, 2000
An all-candidates debate, hosted by the Kanata Council of Community Associations, was held at the Mlacak Centre. Mayoral candidate Bob Chiarelli said the region’s unprecedented growth demands unprecedented action, like selling off Hydro Ottawa and directing those funds towards libraries, soccer pitches, hockey arenas and senior centres. Opponent Claudette Cain said infrastructure demands can be covered by existing revenues, the federal/provincial infrastructure fund and additional development charges.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 3, 2000:1.

October 30, 2000
Rick Baker, former Director of Community and Recreation Services for the City of Kanata, began work as Director of Parks, Recreation and Culture for Newmarket, Ontario. He had worked for the City of Kanata for 14 years. Baker told the Kourier-Standard “Our community has played an important role in the development of the city. The volunteer ethic in Kanata is absolutely fantastic, and I thank the community and council for the opportunity to grow with the position I held for so many years.”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, October 6, 2000:7.

October 31, 2000
At a City Council meeting, Councillor Lance Mitchell was startled to learn that a football field that was to be the home of the Kanata Knights was no longer slated for Bridlewood’s Core Park. Instead, the football field would be at Walter Baker Park. Mitchell said they had discussed lighting and field modifications in July and August. So, "it was a surprise when I got the (staff) report."
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 3, 2000:1.

November 3, 2000
Ed Kruger of the Kourier-Standard described the current campaign for mayor of the new City of Ottawa, “The mayor’s seat for the new City of Ottawa in the upcoming municipal election has turned into a two-horse race with Bob Chiarelli and Claudette Cain leading the way as the perennial political thoroughbreds. The rest of the field is dotted with, what I consider to be, pacers and trotters. I haven’t yet decided on who will get my vote but I can assure you the pacers and the trotters did little to sway my thinking during an all candidates meeting held in Kanata recently.”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 3, 2000:1.

November 7, 2000
At a Kanata City Council meeting, Kanata Seniors’ Centre capital fundraising chairman Owen Prince reported 8,031.77 collected. Mr. Prince said it was all worth it for the 7,500 seniors currently living in Kanata. (Other members of the fundraising committee were Harry Riley, Alf Moore, Frank Valentine, Fred Boyd, Judy Laughton and Honorary Chari jack Donohue.) Funds came from individuals, banks, community organizations, plus ,000 from the Merle Nicholds’ Roast in September.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 17, 2000:3.

November 7, 2000
Kanata City Council approved a site plan application for a four-storey hotel at the north-west corner of Terry Fox Drive and Palladium Drive. The Northampton Group’s planned hotel has 94 rooms and a small breakfast area, a swimming pool and meeting rooms. A previous hotel site plan had been approved in 1990 but it was never built.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 10, 2000, 2001:6.

November 10, 2000
John Smith got a phone message at home from Dr. Melvin Freedman from Sick Children’s Hospital, saying that son Stevie’s bone marrow was normal, the chromosome change had disappeared, and the blood work had come back normal. This "spontaneous remission" diagnosis was given to Stevie, who had been diagnosed with a rare disease, Monosomy 7, in August 1998. Since then, parents John and Trisha and the family had received a great deal of support from the community, including those from different faiths who had prayed for Stevie.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 17, 2000:3.

November 10, 2000
Regional Chair Bob Chiarelli and Regional Councillor Alex Munter announced the acquisition of the South March Highlands by the Region for .6 million. The 556 acres of forest, provincially significant wetlands and spectacular trails became the second-largest forested recreational area in the region.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 17, 2000:3.

November 10, 2000
It was reported that the Ottawa-Carleton Regional Police service was preparing to change its service delivery model. On January 1, 2001, rural Kanata would become part of the newly formed Rural West Division, and urban Kanata would join Stittsville and Nepean in West Division. For urban Kanata, officers would report out of Greenbank Road instead of the current Abbeyhill Drive location. Ottawa-Carleton Regional Police Chief Vince Bevan said there would be a performance appraisal system set up after six months to determine how effective the changes had been. “Service is everyone’s responsibility. We must work together as a team. Communication, co-operation and co-ordination will ensure we deliver quality service,” said Chief Bevan.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 10, 2000, 2001:1

November 10, 2000
Liberal MP and candidate Ian Murray gave his anecdotal analysis of the upcoming federal election voting patterns: Women overwhelmingly vote Liberal. Over and over again he heard women say about Stockwell Day “he scares me.” Senior citizens who are happily retired vote Liberal. Fortyish men vote Canadian Alliance, and youth are “a little disengaged.” Murray calls this a watershed vote, and if there’s one strong impression he’s left with at the door it’s that “people do want a strong government, a strong Canadian identity.”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 10, 2000, 2001:15.

November 13, 2000
Bob Chiarelli defeated Claudette Cain, by 142,972 to 102,940 votes, to become the City of Ottawa’s mayor. It was the first City of Ottawa vote for the newly amalgamated Ottawa-Carleton region. Voter turnout was 47%. Chiarelli called for a new official plan to protect communities. Alex Munter had been acclaimed city councillor, Jim Libbey got two-thirds of the vote to become English public school trustee, and Art Lamarche got 69% of the vote for Catholic school board trustee. Marie Biron won for the French Catholic school board and Bernard Bareilhe had been acclaimed for the French public school board.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 17, 2000:1.

November 17, 2000
In response to residents’ outrage with Mayfair Developments Inc. for cutting trees at the north-west corner of Eagleson Road and Hazeldean Road, Ken Foulds, the Official Plan Review Project Manager for the City of Kanata, said the land was zoned R1-A (residential), and under that classification the landowner could cut trees. “Our building code doesn’t deal with trees,” he said. Mayfair President Michael Boughton said he had submitted an application for an official plan amendment and a zoning amendment to include broader commercial development.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 17, 2000:7.

November 17, 2000
The Kourier-Standard reported that taxation, health care for everyone and aid for farmers were the issues Canadian Alliance candidate Scott Reid was hearing from residents during this Federal election campaign. The 36-year-old Carleton Place resident was attempting to defeat Lanark-Carleton Liberal two-term incumbent Ian Murray on November 27. Mr. Reid was confident his party’s platform would lead it to power.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 17, 2000:8.

November 19, 2000
The Bantam Kanata Titans of the Kanata Girls Minor Hockey Association won the Cornwall Tournament, logging four consecutive victories.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, January 19, 2001:28.

November 24, 2000
It was announced that the Community Resource Centre of Goulbourn, Kanata and West Carleton, along with Sylvia House Hospice, would receive new funding. The two agencies had been selected by the Community Health Services Committee to receive 0,000 and 3,650.94 respectively for capital community health projects. The funds were 25 per cent of the net proceeds of the sale of Salvation Army land at the corner of Terry Fox Drive and Highway 417 in Kanata. The land had been a gift from the Campeau Corporation to the Salvation Army to be used for the construction of a new Grace Hospital in Kanata. (See December 14, 1983.)
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 17, 2000:24.

November 24, 2000
It was reported in the Kourier-Standard that a joint team of local firefighters had just competed in the Las Vegas World Firefighter Combat Challenge and had returned home as world champions and world record holders with the fastest team time ever. The firefighter team consisted of Kanata’s Sterling McNeil and Ren Clement (Kanata), Phillippe Miller (Ottawa), and Mike Fitzpatrick, Shane Ireland and alternate Pat Titley (Nepean). They shaved three seconds off the team record by posting a time of 4:40.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 24, 2000:1.

November 27, 2000
Local television stations, at 10:35 p.m. and with only 30 of the 269 polls reporting in, declared that Liberal Ian Murray had lost to Canadian Alliance candidate Scott Reid. Unofficial poll-by-poll results released by the Elections Canada Returning Office on Hazeldean Road showed that residents of Kanata voted for Murray, giving him 9,296 votes over Reid’s 7,299, not including the advance polls. Murray said the Liberal victory across the country “speaks to the original reason behind this campaign which was a debate on values — the traditional liberal views on tolerance and compassion. I was very pleased with our platform and what we’ve done over the last few years for support for innovation and science and technology.” Murray said having a Canadian Alliance MP represent the riding meant the high-tech community would have “less of a voice when it comes to support.”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, December 1, 2000:1.

November 28, 2000
The morning after the federal election, Canadian Alliance candidate Scott Reid commented that he “felt pretty good — I won by over 3000 votes.” (Returning Officer figures showed Reid’s total at 24,670 while Liberal MP Ian Murray had 22,812 votes.)
Reid, 36, whose family owned Giant Tiger stores, said that he could relate to some of the issues facing small business owners. “Small business issues are the same across the riding.” Reid said he wanted to encourage growth to be more evenly spread throughout the riding. “Smaller towns would love to share in the prosperity of Kanata.”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, December 1, 2000:1.

November 28, 2000
The arena feasibility study team presented its final report to Kanata City Council. It said that population growth, especially the number of children, was increasing pressure on recreation programs and facilities. A new arena would be fully booked on opening day, and a second new arena would be needed in two or three years. The report recommended adding a single ice pad to the Kanata Recreation Complex. The recommendations were forwarded by Kanata to the new City of Ottawa council.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, December 1, 2000:3.

November 30, 2000
The Salvation Army Sylvia House Hospice manager, Don Ciavaglia, presented Terence Porter with an Allianz Caregiver of the Year Award for his selfless dedication in caring for his wife Doreen who had passed away in July 2000. In March 1989, Doreen Porter suffered a stroke that left her hemiplegic (paralysis of one side of the body) and aphasic (loss of ability to understand or express speech). In 1995, complications from a broken bone left Doreen totally bedridden. Terence Porter continued to care for his wife at home with the help of friends, his church and trained volunteers from Sylvia House.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, December 8, 2000:7.

December 6, 2000
Eighty residents attended the Kanata Beaverbrook Community Association meeting to hear Bill Teron talk about his new “Kanata Rockeries” development at the southwest corner of the Beaver Pond. André Lambert spoke on the Richcraft and Urbandale developments planned for the north side of the Beaver Pond, and City parks planner Alan Cameron spoke on the South March Highlands area recently acquired by the Region.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, January 12, 2001:15

December 8, 2000
The Kourier-Standard reported on the Peer Helper Program at Castlefrank Elementary School. The program had Grade 5 or 6 peer helpers doing problem solving in the schoolyard during recess. School Principal Ron Seguin, who implemented the program three years ago, said the number of cases of schoolyard bullying had been reduced. According to peer helper Emily Spratt, “If there are some kids in the middle of a fight, we try to help. We ask them if they used the five step program and if they say no, we go over it with them.”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, December 8, 2000:8.

December 12, 2000
The Future Pool Options Committee’s report to Kanata City Council called for more indoor aquatic facilities to meet the city’s growing needs. The report’s preferred solution would be an .5 million, 50 metre, eight-lane facility located at March and Klondike Roads. Councillor Lance Mitchell, concerned with the pool location proposals, commented that “Bridlewood is now the only community without a pool.”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, December 15, 2000:1.

December 12, 2000
Kanata City Council approved the site plan application for an additional 366.6 square feet to be added to the Ron Maislin Playhouse at a cost of 0,000. The money for the project, coming from the Kanata Theatre Group, would go towards expanding and revamping the rehearsal space and lobby.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, December 15, 2000:3.

December 13, 2000
The Ottawa-Carleton Youth Justice Committee (OCYJC) had an information meeting at the Kanata Community Policing Centre on Abbeyhill Drive. The OCYJC a pilot project set up by the provincial Attorney General’s office, dealt with first-time non-violent offenders between the ages of 12-17. It took offenders guilty of theft under ,000 out of the court process, and put them in front of community members – especially the victims and their families – for a discussion about how the incident affected everyone and what an appropriate punishment would be. Leigh D. Holm, Administrative Co-ordinator for the OCYJC said they needed members to serve on the Kanata OCYJC.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, December 8, 2000:1.

December 15, 2000
A recent “transplant” from the Prairies, Gary Gerelus wrote a letter to the Editor of the Kourier-Standard about a December walk he and his wife took with friends through Kanata’s South March Highlands. “(It is) an enchanting region peppered with beaver ponds, marshy outcrops that tower over a lush landscape of wonder and natural beauty. Gingerly we skid across glass lake-size ponds, past rare stands and into enduring sunlit burnt orange underbrush.” Of the surrounding and advancing land development, he asked, “How fair will (Kanata) be without such marvels as the one we just experienced?”
Kanata Kourier-Standard, December 15, 2000:4.

December 19, 2000
Kanata City Council had its final council meeting. Included were presentations, speeches, and accolades. Twenty-five people lined up to pay their respects, say thanks, and reminisce about Kanata’s early days and events. Speakers included Bill Teron, Tel Smale, Dave Krajaefski, Tom Flood, Murray Chown (Novatech Engineering), Bill Williams, Bob Duford, and Alex Munter, and Merle Nicholds. Members of the Kanata Branch of the Royal Canadian Legion removed and retired the City of Kanata flag.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, January 12, 2001:9,10.

December 22, 2000
The office of the Kanata Kourier-Standard moved from Beaverbrook to 1120 March Road, opposite St. Isidore’s Church.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, January 12, 2001:3

December 24, 2000
Reporter Anna Marie Young’s daughter, Courtney, 9, sustained a head injury, and then suffered what she considered to be a long wait, poor attention and a missed diagnosis at CHEO.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, January 19, 2001:5

December 25, 2000
The Kanata Food Cupboard (KFC) assisted two hundred and fifty-six families, including 742 children, at Christmas. The children also received gifts from the Kinsmen’s Hazeldean Mall Tree. During this Christmas period, Kanata firefighters helped the KFC move boxed food into storage.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, January 26, 2001:14.

December 28, 2000
The Atom A Bloodhounds won the KMHA Shane Norris Memorial Atom A Hockey Tournament at the Jack Charron Arena. Robbie Campbell scored the final game’s winning goal.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, January 19, 2001:21

December 31, 2000
The Kanata Major Bantam A Blazers gave themselves a post-Christmas present when they captured the South End Christmas Stick Bantam A Hockey Championship held at the Walkley Arena during December 26-31. The Blazers’ scoring punch in the tournament opener came off the sticks of Kenny Iob and Zach Maclean who netted two goals apiece. In the final game, Kanata’s Mark Rose opened the scoring for his team, and then won it in overtime, sending Blazer fans into a frenzy.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, January 12, 2001:24.

December 31, 2000
The City of Kanata held a gala New Year’s Eve party at the Corel Centre to celebrate the final day of the City of Kanata before it became part of the new City of Ottawa.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, November 24, 2000:9.

December 31, 2000
A new Web site, the “Kanata Timeline History” was launched. The site, a project of the Kanata Public Library, traces events taking place in the City of Kanata from 1977 through 2000.
Kanata Kourier-Standard, January 12, 2001:4, 27.

Cool Personal Training Certification images

Check out these personal training certification images:

“Vixen who lives up to her name and Ari the Deputy dog, these are a few of My Favorite Things.”
personal training certification
Image by Bennilover
These are my granddogs who just came for a Christmas visit. Vixen, on the left is a full Malinois, and the boss of both Ari and Benni – Benni learned as a pup to respect this dog. She’s my favorite and regards me as a good treat dispensing grandma. She can sniff out drugs and does it for fun and the amusement of her family when they travel or go to the beach. But not a working dog, she’s a family pet.

Ari is described below in a copy of an article that appeared in the Santa Cruz Sentinel. Sorry the photo of Doug and Ari didn’t reproduce. At Ari’s retirement Doug only had to pay for a dog that cost the County well over ,000.

Santa Cruz County Sheriff’s Office
July 16 ·

This past week, the Sheriff’s Office K9 Ari retired after nearly 6 years of serving the community! As one of the two service dogs for the Sheriff’s Office, Ari is a 9-year-old Belgian Malinois/ German Shepherd cross, who was born in the Czech Republic. Ari and his handler, Deputy Doug Smith, have been partners since Ari’s first night on duty (Halloween 2010). Ari’s responsibilities and certifications included narcotics detection, Search and Rescue, handler protection, article (evidence) search, tracking, public relations demonstrations and other patrol activities. During his career, Ari has located and apprehended numerous felons, located several missing persons, and defended his handler during violent encounters. Following his end of service, Ari’s ownership has been transferred to Deputy Smith, where he will enjoy a long and happy retirement! Well done Ari!

(Week 51 of personal challenge, "My Favorite Things." a little late….)

MSHA training (14 April 2018, Columbus, Ohio, USA)
personal training certification
Image by James St. John
Gaining access to most quarries, in order to examine rocks, minerals, and fossils, requires geologists & collectors to have "MSHA certification". This refers to the Mine Safety and Health Administration, which is part of the American federal government. Certification for collectors involves a half-day safety training session. The certification lasts one year, after which a new training session must be taken.

I’ve been to 4 MSHA training sessions. This is the instructor, Scott Kell of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil and Gas (oilandgas.ohiodnr.gov).

I have 12.5 pages of typed-up notes from these sessions.
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Collecting Safety
Hazard Training
2018
How dangerous are mines and quarries? Be aware and they’re fine, safety-wise.
Common injuries – minor cuts, bruises, sprained ankles. These are things that will happen during a home improvement project.

Misery index – injury inventory
While collecting at a mine or quarry, have you had:
– mashed thumb
– cut requiring a band air
– abrasion requiring first aid
– bruise from a slip or fall
– sprained ankle
– laceration requiring stitches
– heat exhaustion
– heat stroke
– broken bone
– dislocation
– removal by ambulance
– known a fellow-collector who died while collecting in a quarry/mine

Risk of serious injury is relatively minor.

This is not training for subsurface mines.

Emphasizing mines and quarries – not roadcuts or stream cuts, etc.
Safety training is a once-a-year thing, but it’s a mindset – a value.
We all make mistakes, but never intentionally break a host’s rule (e.g., stay 40 feet away from a highwall).
Our hosts – who are they? It’s usually quarries in Ohio, Indiana, Michigan. If granted permission to collect, host are usually owners of mines/quarries. 77 out of 88 Ohio counties have mines and quarries.
Ohio quarries/mines hire ~3500 people and it’s a 1 billion dollars a year industry.
Limestone or dolostone mines – produce materials that make roads, patios, houses, shoreline erosion control, industrial fluxes, filler products, water purification materials, medicine, cosmetics, etc. This kind of industry improves our standard of living – they command our respect, whether we get permission to collect or not. An under-recognized industry.
Coal miners have always been required to go through extensive training.
Industrial quarries have been exempt from training, until 2000.
Miner training includes driving large trucks, storing acetylene tanks – things that don’t apply to mineral collectors or geologists.
Does training make a difference? Yes it does. Does it make all the difference needed? No.
Quarry foremen get lots of calls from collectors. They’re tempted to not offer collecting at all. They prefer only those groups proven to collect safely. Some rock & mineral clubs have poor reputations.
Training helps keep doors open – maybe reopen now-closed doors.
Miner fatalities require investigations, identification of causes, etc. Nearly all fatalities and serious injuries were avoidable if they honored what was learned during training. Most injuries & deaths are new people or so-experienced people that they get blasé.
Only get one chance to make a first impression.
Need to have groups of people that do things right.
Be punctual. Be 15 to 30 minutes early before scheduled sign-in time. Keep in mind construction delays. Be punctual regardless. Have all needed protective equipment.
Be punctual, prepared, attentive, respectful, appreciative, serious. Act like this is a job interview. Try to impress the hosts.
Hosts are usually giving up a weekend day – unpaid. They don’t know you – they haven’t trained you, etc. They’re trusting that you are worthy of their good faith – that you will be responsible. Present yourselves well.
As long as we provide tangible benefits to the company, in terms of public outreach, we will be valued and provided access occasionally.
Recognize personal limitations – make an honest, annual self assessment. Limitation components: cardiorespiratory, morphologic, strength, balance. Time changes us – age matters. Not everyone belongs on a blast pile. Not everyone can use specific tools.
Falling in a mine is a common experience.
75+ year old people in society have a greatly increased fall rate.
Example: at a quarry in Genoa, a collector was walking from atop a large boulder down to a lower boulder – ended up falling. The cause – stepped on a shoelace – boots had gotten untied.
Everyone will stumble.
Miners and collectors are not exposed to the exact same risks.
Ex: employee in a bucket, extracting loose rocks from a highwall; a rock fell on him – got killed.
Historically, mining has had the highest serious injury rate in any major industry group – things that would cause lost time for a particular miner.
Most sites have prominent signs with number of hours since the last lost-time injury.
With required federal training, fatalities have dropped.
Fatality trends have been declining noticeably since the mid-2000s.
684 surface mine & underground miners have been killed. 627 were surface mine fatalities.
44 miners died annually, on average, before training started.
17.5 died annually more recently, since training started.
Big equipment (“powered haulage”) is the # 1 way miners die. We don’t operate in those. Shouldn’t collect anywhere near them, or where they’re operating. High wall incidents are the # 2 way miners die. Slips/falls are the # 3 way to die for miners.
Miners do things collectors don’t do.
Fatality causes – powered haulage is # 1 cause; highwalls are # 2 cause; third is slips and falls.
While collecting, one usually isn’t around operating equipment. It’s not safe to be working around operating big equipment.
Operators have to provide on-site, site-specific hazard training for people going in – including those excluded from the definition of “miner”. We are “visitors”.
Genoa quarry – usually have a 10-15 minute overview of safety training on site.
Don’t do phone calls during this sort of thing. Never do that.
On-site training is more detailed – it includes site-specific info. – information relating to the unique conditions at any particular mine/quarry.
Training objectives – identify & discuss hazards associated with collecting & hazards associated with just being in the quarry. Learn the terminology of the mine.
Ex: “Don’t collect in the trough.” What’s a trough? Know what the restrictions mean.
Want to earn the trust & respect of the host.
Some rock & mineral clubs are not trained and don’t follow rules.
“Close calls”. We’ve all seen them. Think through any you saw or experienced.
Close call analysis is now an important part of mine safety training.
They want to hear about miners talk about close calls – focusing on prevention by doing close call training.
Unique risks as collectors, versus miners? Yes.
Miners don’t drive personal vehicles into quarries – they don’t park in quarries. They are rarely on foot where equipment is operating. They usually don’t walk around on blast piles. They typically don’t pick up rocks or use hand tools (chisels, pry bars, saws, etc.). There’s a different set of risks that we expose ourselves to, as collectors.
—————————
Training Topical Overview
Before you enter – prepare personal protective equipment (“PPE”). Know driving safety.
Ground control – be safe around highwalls and benches; be safe while maneuvering on a blast pile. Some quarries don’t allow walking on blast piles.
Other topics – water hazards, tool safety, . . .
Before you enter – always have express permission to enter, from the superintendent or foreman or designated representative. Other employees (like the security guard or the scale house person) can’t allow permission. The former folks know the condition of the mine as of the end of the last shift. That responsibility isn’t part of any other employee’s job. The foremen and superintendents have to know that. They have to be aware of the latest condition of the mine. It is not the law that the foreman/superintendent accompany us the entire time, although they may do that anyway.
Know what time we need to leave & whether it’s as a group or individually. You may have to wait in your vehicle until the time when the entire group leaves together.
Sign in at the office. Sign all paperwork. Don’t want to do paperwork? Then spend your Saturdays doing something else.
Ask questions if clarification is needed. Sometimes, instructions are ambiguous. Some speak in generalities. Some are very specific.
Sometimes on-site training is two parts. One at the office area. One on the quarry floor.
They often speak in generalities. “Don’t go near highwalls.” “Don’t go near haul roads.” Well, how close is “near”? Ask for specifics. Can be admonished for even being 30 feet away. Don’t argue – it’s their mine. Do what they ask.
Listen attentively to site-specific training.
Know what specific areas are permitted & which areas are prohibited.
Note recommended driving pattern – drive in right lane or left lane?
Note about proximity rules for conveyors and other equipment.
Restrictions on specific tools, like cutoff saws or drills? They expect us to go in with the basics – hammers and chisels. Ask about other types of tools.
Will there be a blast during the day?
When do they want collectors out of the mine? Sometimes, they want everyone to enter together AND leave together. If need be, when done, sit in car and wait.
Some quarries allow walking atop blast piles – some don’t. Marblehead Quarry wants one foot always on quarry floor. Why’s that? It’s not necessarily unsafe. But it’s what the host is comfortable with. Honor that.
There’s a difference between compliance and true safety. But we have agreed to be compliant in order to enter.
If you arrive late – site-specific training is done, foreman has led everyone into the quarry. You just drive in & join them? No. Have to have site-specific hazard awareness training first. Don’t be late.
Clubs that enter quarries need an emergency plan – have phone number of operator.
Have first-aid kits. Keep an eye on fellow collectors that have medical conditions.
Peronal protective equipment (PPE) for: head, eyes, feet, shins, knees, hands, hearing, respiratory, back.
Some quarry hosts require certain types of protective equipment.
Abide by any conditions.
Quarries have to provide these to miners. Collectors are expected to provide their own.
Well-prepared collectors: durable, full-length pants (no shorts – one’s legs can get shrededd/cut), safety glasses, hardhat, steel-toed boots, reflective vests (commonly required nowadays; in Canada, they need an “X” on the back), belted equipment, shin guards, knee guards, gloves (advisable at some sites), weather-appropriate clothes.
Hardhats are not legally required where collectors are generally allowed. If there is no real risk of something falling on your head – not legally required. However, standard practice is to always have the hardhat on – could be walking in & out of areas where a real risk of falling objects is present.
Suitable hardhats – certified by ANSI Z89.1, with the bill-forward, or with bills all around. This info. is on a sticker within hardhat. A rare restriction is having nearly-new hardhats (less than 5 years old, for example – a Kentucky quarry demanded that). Hosts are free to require any standard above & beyond federal standards.
MSHA and OSHA do not set expiration standards for hardhats.
Hardhats should be replaced if dented or cracked – if the plastic is chalky or soft – if the suspension doesn’t work – that’s a common sign – it loosens and hardhat keeps falling off.
Eye protection – have eyeglasses with sideshields or goggles. Every once in a while, a collector will strike some sample that explodes.
Geodes sometimes explode. Story about how quartz crystals got embedded in a collector’s chest after one exploded on him. About 3 years later, a doctor found quartz crystals still in him on an X-ray. What if that had been the eyes? Probably would have lost your eyesight.
Start cracking geodes with mild taps. Whack harder from there.
Never crack a geode without eye protection.
Steel-toed boots, preferrably with ankle support. Or kevlar-toed boots.
Metatarsal protection – shield that cover the dorsal mid-foot – in case a boulder rolls over your foot – your toes are protected, but your metatarsals will suffer otherwise.
Heavy-duty gloves aren’t always mandatory. They’re recommended with sharp, siliceous rocks or any other site, really. Not really a concern with Ohio sites. Butcher gloves are cut-resistant.
Recommend belting your supplies.
Knee/shin guards recommended.
If you have lots of accessories, have a carrier on a belt. Fluorescent tape, quick-setting glue, handkerchief for cleaning glasses. Don’t want your hands tied up. Get belted carriers at Home Depot-type stores.
Driving in quarries – follow the signs. Assume you will be entering & exiting via a steep ramp – your vehicle needs to be able to handle that (no bad clutch vehicles). Conditions change from year to year. Unique road signage and driving conditions at each quarry – similar to what’s on the open road, but also some unusual signs. Don’t assume the same quarry is the same from year to year.
Example miner fatality – a truck drove into the back of a parked, 300 ton truck, at an estimated 50 mph. It’s never reasonable to be driving at 25 mph, let alone 50 mph.
Travel on grades – use gearing and brakes to control speed. Gear down prior to grade.
On quarry floor – most are nearly horizontal & nearly flat. Law requires tires chocked and turned. Use a rock from site. This is not a safety issue on flat quarry floors – a car in neutral on a flat quarry floor will not move. Federal inspectors interpret the law such that turned & chocked tires are necessary even on flat floors. It’s easy to forget this. Not a true safety standard. Most places are satisfied with chocking one wheel. Put a rock in front of & behind your tires – that should be fine.
There’s a big difference between compliance and genuine safety. There is absolutely nothing unsafe about not chocking tires on flat floors. Remember this if you move from one parking site in the quarry to another one. Chock again. Not truly a safety risk. Definitely do this on a ramp or incline, however.
Only use haul roads authorized by foreman. Know traffic patterns. Yield to moving equipment.
—————————
Think of ways to give back to your hosts.
LaFarge has a public outreach day. Some have donated fossils to this company for their public outreach activities.
Lafarge has a large mine – the Marblehead Quarry – a substantial operation.
The Ohio governor once visited the Lafarge quarry at Marblehead (largest quarry in Ohio) and witnessed a blast – the quarry people appreciated that.
Offer them a “Minerals of Ohio” book or something.
Superintendents & other staff volunteer their time on weekends when they meet & lead groups into quarries for collecting.
—————————
Ground Control – highwall and bench safety.
Ground control is a political term for the condition of the mine, the highwall, the floor, all parts of the mining environment.
Assess hazards from below and above.
Terminology – highwall, trough, blast pile, bench, floor
Highwall is the face created by blasting. Will have one or more highwalls.
Some quarries have a series of benches.
Blast piles may slope from wall to floor. Some have a crest, with a trough (low area) closer to the wall.
“Surface industrial mineral mine”.
Never trust a highwall. Never turn your back to a highwall.
1995-2016 – highwall failures were the # 2 cause of all miner deaths.
Highwall can collapse or can have rocks falling.
Geologists like to collect in-situ samples from specific horizons.
We are not company geologists – we are not authorized to collect samples from highwalls. They can authorize their own geologists – we visitors cannot do that, unless specifically allowed (unlikely, though).
Example: a company geologist fatality – a small rock (a pound or two) fell from upper highwall. Hardhat didn’t save his life.
Catastrophic failures of highwalls can cause deaths.
This is not common. If you’re there when it happens, it won’t bode well.
Risk factors – rock composition, discontinuities within the rock, highwall geometry, weather (highwalls can be riskier than normal under certain weather conditions).
Rock is solid. But rock in highwalls may have discontinuities along which failure can occur. Highwalls can collapse without a sound – no warning.
Highwalls are composed of rock that is anything but solid.
Rock has discontinuities – it is rarely solid.
Bedding planes – a common type of discontinuity here in Ohio. Bedding planes are depositional surfaces – they are where environments changed over the course of time. In Ohio, they’re usually horizontal.
Can also have joints or fracture planes – usually perpendicular patterns – formed from ancient tectonic events with stresses. Get uniform, consistently-directed fractures in the rock. They’re not there due to quarrying – have been there for a long time. They form trends and often occur at regular angles.
Faults – not many in Ohio quarries. But they are possible.
A few quarries in northwestern Ohio have faults. Some in Michigan. Elsewhere, be aware of faults.
Fractures – basic, generic term for discontinuities (breaks in rock) formed by blasting, pressure release, subsequent weathering from freeze-thaw cycles. Over time, highwalls becoming increasingly fractured and increasingly dangerous.
Constantly reassess the situation while you’re in a quarry or mine.
What conditions (geologic or otherwise) create hazardous highwall conditions?
Highly fractured rocks.
Wall-parallel joints.
Thin-bedded limestone versus massive-bedded dolostone (like Lockport Dolomite). Massive-bedded walls are less dangerous than walls of thin-bedded rocks. The latter are like a stack of bricks.
Overhangs – created where a more stable caprock is underlain by weak, soft, more fissile material, like shale – it weathers away more easily. Caprocks are a serious safety risk.
Once, a fossil collector in a quarry that had Silica Shale went under an overhang – purposefully – for the shade. After moving on, it collapsed 15 to 20 feet. He would have been a grease smear if still hanging out there. Can never tell when something will collapse. The presence of drops – material at the base of a highwall indicates wall is not stable. What makes you think it won’t drop when you’re there? Thawing highwalls will make spitting sounds – warning sign that the highwall is not stable.
Fracturing is often a function of the bedding nature (Ex: thin-bedded limestone versus massive dolostone).
South Rockwood – high-angle joints and faults are present in quarry face.
Most Midwestern quarries have horizontal bedding.
Some do have dipping beds – reef flank deposits. Ex: Swayze, Indiana – also had Pleistocene mammal bones in a karst void. Can’t do collecting there anymore.
Elsewhere, can have steeply angled bedding or foliation.
Look for unstable dipping beds.
Experienced collectors often take greater risks – they’ve gotten away with more and think they’ll be OK. Avoid overhangs.
Some sites – with limestones, in particular, but also dolomite – can partly dissolve away from slightly acidic rainwater and groundwater. Can get clay-filled joints in limestone or dolostone that were enlarged by dissolution (rainfall is slightly acidic – carbonic acid) and filled with material. Rocks in front of such features aren’t really attached to highwall behind – the highwall is a façade at such areas – not stable features. Solution-expanded joints in limestone & dolostone rocks. Over time, joints expand and pieces detach/collapse because they’re no longer supported by the matrix.
Quarries may place barricades of rock next to high-risk sections of highwalls.
Destabilizing fractures often occur at intersections of highwalls of different orientations – “corners” – two highwalls intersect. Compression release coming from both faces result in highly fractured corners.
Some collectors have been observed adjacent to unstable corners – that’s very unsafe and defiant of quarry rules. Respectfully remind people that they may be in unsafe areas. Or are parked in an unsafe area. Don’t need to yell or humiliate, however. Unless it’s over pure defiance.
Most joints are vertical. Some joints & many faults are steeply angled.
Wall-parallel joint surfaces are relatively smooth and iron oxide-stained (brownish-colored).
Back-break – refers to fractures that extend downward from the bench behind the face of the highwall. Often can’t discern how poorly attached segments of highwall are to more stable rock behind them. Easily recognized from above – from a bench. Not so easily observed from the quarry floor. Don’t ever trust a highwall. Don’t necessarily know where back-break fractures are. Usually don’t get a chance to view highwalls from all vantage points.
Example miner death – from highwall collapse along a back-break – a wall-parallel fracture.
Highwalls can be bedrock with unconsolidated glacial deposits above. Ex: boulder-rich glacial till atop limestone. Don’t just look at rockface. Look at what overlies it. Boulders frequently erode down. Evaluate unstable overburden.
Highwall geometry – height and slope of highwall; presence or absence of benches. Rocks falling along a vertical face will drop vertically. Steep, non-vertical walls will have rocks bouncing or rolling downslope. Falling if the wall is vertical. Bouncing if the highwall slope is 60 degrees. Rolling if the highwall slope is 45 degrees.
Benching is used to prevent highwall failures & to capture detaching/collapsing material. Rather than have one big 300’ tall highwall, have a series of benches – rocks get caught on bench surfaces. As benches age, they can get cluttered & covered with material over time – the benches become "loaded". Newer falling material may bounce down along lower walls. Loaded benches – falling rocks will bounce and fly downward. Loaded benches no longer provide an impediment to falling material.
Don’t collect piles below large loaded benches. Don’t collect piles close to highwalls.
Observe loaded benches for frequency of falls/slides. Don’t risk.
Unstable “shot-rock” occurs on loaded benches.
Loaded benches result in “ski jumps”.
Material can cascade over a series of narrow benches.
Things do come flying laterally after falling down slopes. Miner deaths have occurred in trucks from rocks flying sideways, far away from highwalls.
You may want to be 150 feet away from a highwall. The default standard is be 40 feet away from a highwall.
Mines are starting to use computer models to simulate how materials might wall along benches they’re considering building.
Don’t need a computer. Intuitively, can reasonably assess risks & nature of falling rocks.
Highwall vugs are wonderful places to collect crystals. Quarry owners generally don’t allow that. Don’t enter a vug without explicit permission. It’s rare to get that nowadays. Collecting these was done in the days before MSHA rules.
Weather – spring and winter are the most dangerous seasons, in terms of highwall stability. Those are the wet seasons. Dark rocks – are wet – notice dark, water-saturated highwall faces. Water has weight. Water helps to destabilize rocks – it adds weight to highwalls, which further destabilizes the area.
Also consider expanding clays.
Also consider the freeze to thaw period.
Recognize unstable highwall hazards – highly fractured strata, overhangs, back break, high angle joints & faults, cross-bedded or dipping start, solution-enhanced joints, vugs filled with loose debris, unconsolidated material on the bench, highwall geometry, weather factors, etc.
Silica Shale – has specific horizons with extra-good fossil – unit 9.
A Silica Shale quarry visit long ago – a small bench with unit 9 was present – a five foot tall bench – not really a highwall. Chiseled in – rock was fractured. Rock was wet & weather was cold. Pried back several feet into five foot bench. Collected fossils. One geologist moved on eventually. At the end of day, another geologist reported that three foot worth of rock had toppled over – several tons collapsed. Chiseling had undermined the toe of the highwall under cold and wet conditions.
Don’t allow rulebreakers to keep breaking rules.
Quarry hosts may prevent collecting in the trough. At Paulding, a trough is present (“power trough”) between highwall and crest of blast pile.
Barricades – quarry owner may make an arc of stone along part of highwall. Don’t enter the area. May have “Keep Out” signs as well – not all barricades are accompanied by signs. Some barricades are hummocky piles of material. If you see an anomalous pile of rocks – think through – what’s it for? Barricades don’t have to be large, but they can be.
Barricades are made to keep miners out. They certainly don’t want collectors in there.
Allowed to collect the outside of a barricade.
South Rockwood – berms are used, instead of barricades. Berms are linear rock piles perpendicular to the highwall – they don’t connect with the highwall. May be allowed to collect from berms, but don’t be on the inside of the berm. That issue wasn’t brought up during site-specific collecting. Piles of rock that parallel the highwall? Ask about them. Not a barricade – a long, linear berm. Barricades are arcs that connect to the highwall.
If there’s a row of rocks parallel to the highwall, ask about it.
Highwall issues are the most important part of this safety training.
Collectors, while looking downward, can walk into trouble. Constantly look around and assess your position and situation.
Ground control – bench safety. Hazards from above – don’t want to go over the edge Look for unstable fractures in the bench itself. Slips, trips, falls – trip hazards are present on benches as they prepare for the next blast. Unstable ground. . . .
Stay 8 feet from stable edge of bench. Are back-breaks present? 8 feet begins behind them. Miners closer than that have to wear safety belts with lines.
We are not miners – we are not allowed closer than 8 feet to the bench edge
Example miner death – an experienced drill operator was walking along a bench edge on 13 August 2002 in foggy conditions and fell to his death – fell only 23 feet.
Don’t stand on rocks below the edge to collect. People who do are called “organ donors”.
Ground control – spoils piles. These are commercially non-viable material piled up. Can have wonderful fossils. Be cognizant of slope. Watch collectors below you. Don’t work directly upslope or downslope from others.
Shale spoil piles can be rich in fossils – sometimes collecting them is allowed, sometimes not. Spoil piles can be safe to collect. Footing is better when moist. Trickier when dry.
Crushed stone piles – not specimen-rich. Never climb them. They have steep, unstable slopes. Never been invited to collect these.
Blast piles. Some quarries allow you on them – some don’t.
After blasting, material is put onto trucks and shipped away. Toes of blast piles get removed first. Avoid removed toes of blast piles.
Collect in areas where toe is still intact – enter blast piles (if allowed on them) from the toe (enter at an area with a low angle of repose). Avoid truncated toe areas.
When atop a blast pile, keep knees bent. Remember to engage in three point contact (two feet and one hand) – don’t burden your arms and hands with stuff – need to be free. Have to have at least one hand free. Test the stability of next rock before transferring your weight. Move slowly. Don’t always be crouched, but always have one hand free for the 3rd contact. Can use prybars as a cane or walking stick. Getting back down is trickier than climbing up.
For carrying large/heavy specimens across wet/slick blast piles – use a log carrier. If you are carrying a large, heavy specimen in front of you, you’re walking blind – can’t see your next step – easy to slip and fall. If you do fall, abandon the specimen.
It allows a clear line of sight, lowers your center of gravity, and allows one to lower the sample without damage if you begin to lose balance. Does put torque on your back, however. Maybe use a back brace. Some collectors use a log carrier to carry larger rock specimens.
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Story about the eight foot rule from the edge of a bench.
In the 1990s, a collector entered an Indiana quarry, alone, without telling anyone. Using a crowbar to pry pieces of rock away from a bench edge – he was facing out – toward the floor of the quarry – toward the upper edge of a highwall. A piece popped up – lost balance – went face first over a ~30 feet tall highwall, down to the floor below. Passed out. Woke up later. Collected gear. Crawled out of quarry. Took 12 hours of crawling to reach the road – carried his equipment with him. Broke both legs. Shattered left knee and left elbow. Knee & elbow were compound fractures. Had to re-attach muscles to knee & elbow. Leg had a vertical break through bone. 3 major surgeries in 4 days. He should’ve been dead.
He had been pushing on a crowbar when it slipped – he went forward & over & down.
This person committed numerous mistakes – they should have cost him his life.
—————————
Working near moving equipment.
Host will inform about the presence (or not) of moving equipment while collecting.
Most of the time, heavy equipment will not be moving.
Power haulage accidents (big trucks & front-end loaders) are # 1 cause of miner deaths in the last 22 years.
Big haul trucks – views from the cab have enormous blind spots. Be respectful of the size of the equipment and the visual disadvantages the drivers have. Big haul trucks have blind spots: within 24 feet of tires, with 50 feet in front, 100 feet to the opposite side, and 100 to 150 feet behind.
Front-end loaders have less, but still substantial, blind spots, up to 29 feet.
When they come over the crest of a road, they have short sight distances. May not easily see you or your vehicle. They can’t stop on a dime.
Example fatal mine accident – a foreman’s truck got run over by an employee.
Example: a car got run over & caught on fire.
This is what happens when heavy meets light.
Don’t want to be around moving heavy equipment.
Example fatality: a truck was going up a 26% grade – driven by a new, inexperienced miner. The brakes and the back-up brake system were poorly maintained. Traveling up a steep ramp – nearly at the top. Truck stalled. Without brake system working & not aware of how to use back-up brakes, the truck free-wheeling down the ramp. Hit a berm – truck went over a highwall – killed him. Lesson – don’t follow a truck up a ramp.
Trucks stalling out are not uncommon, according to quarry foremen. Wait for truck to reach the top before you begin your trip out.
Moving equipment always have the right-of-way. Always face & acknowledge the driver. Maintain eye contact. Never park near or behind such vehicles.
Always ask where to park. And walk. And be. Never follow vehicles up a ramp.
Tool safety.
Not all tools are intended to be used with stone.
Don’t overstress tools. Use well-maintained tools.
Hammer & chisel – most common tools.
Flying metal chips may result from worn/mushroomed tools.
Beware flying rock pieces.
Watch smashed thumbs (chisel hand).
Watch detached hammer heads – they become airborne.
Glancing blows on chisel – it may fly away. This has been observed during collecting trips.
Chisels with hand guards are advised. They aren’t mandatory. Get them at Lowe’s.
Some chisels have wrenches or vice grips attached – can hold the chisel that way. Reducing risk of hitting your own hand.
Use chisels specifically for stone or masonry. Not for-metal or for-wood chisels.
Watch out for mushroomed chisel heads – get them ground/dressed. Otherwise will have flying metal bits.
A collector using a mushroomed chisel sent a piece of jagged metal flying and hit a nearby collector in the arm.
Hammer selection – mason’s hammer (chisel end, but not really – for soft materials), pick hammer (not designed for chiseling), drilling hammer (have broad faces – ideal for striking chisels). The former two aren’t good for striking a chisel head. Need a larger-faced hammer.
Longer-handled hammers saves wear & tear on your arm.
Estwing offers multiple-length hammers.
Some hammers have two-part construction. Heads are usually loose after one day of intense usage in a quarry, however. Go for single-piece constructed hammers (Estwing).
The width of the hammer’s striking face should be a least 3/8 inches wider than the width of the chisel head.
Keep one hand grasping the chisel at all times, even if you think the chisel is securely embedded in the matrix. Glancing blows do send chisels flying – this has been observed.
Ludlow Falls – has trilobites in dolomite. Collecting with a short-arm drilling hammer is tought. With a long-arm drilling hammer, collecting is so much easier.
Ludlow Falls is a non-stop hammering site.
One a hammer head begins to loosen – it’s a hazard.
Wooden-handle hammers don’t last one day at Ludlow Falls Quarry.
Always have eye protection.
Cutoff saws – not all places allow cutoff saws.
Watch burns from a hot manifold. Watch back strain, silica dust, flying debris, cutting disc explosion from excessive RPMs, kickback. Metal discs can disintegrate. Saws are noisy – do ear protection.
Lots of different types of blades. Segmented blades are effective for rough-cut work, for removing a delicate specimen with lots of matrix around it. Inspect cutting blades for cracks, warping, excessive wear. Never move guard. All have a trigger release mechanism – once your finger is off, it starts slowing down.
Blade RPM must be greater than the saw RPM. Keep dust filter cleaned.
Use gloves, dust masks, steel-toed boots, hardhat, eye protection, dust mask.
Need a respirator. Some rocks have low silica content, but no dust is free of hazard, in terms of silicosis. It’s a nasty disease. Don’t be cutting near other collectors, or only with their permission.
Fuel up saws when cold.
Support back by bracing elbow against knee while sawing.
Don’t forcefully push blade into rock. Pull blade back across the stone.
Never hand off a saw to someone else while blade is rotating.
Avoid touching the hot muffler.
Clean dust regularly.
Watch shifting winds from dusty saw use.
Rock drills. A popular tool. They create fewer vibrations – good for extracting delicate crystal vugs. Not much dust, compared with saws. Can chew up a lot of rock per unit time. Relatively dust-free. Wear a respirator anyway.
Hammering set pins. Can go flying with glancing blows from a sledge hammer.
Rock drilling is not a spectator sport. Give ‘em room. Always a risk of metal failure.
No such thing as an unbreakable hammer.
Stupid activity – striking a chisel on the cutting edge.
Stupid activity – a Ph.D. student was once allowed access to a quarry, and was discovered by foreman hanging from a rope along the highwall, sampling beds – the rope was tied to the vehicle’s bumper, while parked on a ramp. Lots of mistakes there.
Lifting safety.
Back pain risk factors – lifting heavy loads, . . .
Know personal limits. Wear a back brace. Bend at knees close to the load. Place hands on opposite corners of object – one hand pulls toward you & other lifts. Bring load close to body. Keep back vertical. Use legs to push yourself into a standing position. Change direction using feet – don’t twist your back.
Blasting. Quarry will inform you if this is planned.
Few have witnessed actual blasts. Flyrock can travel far. Can get miner deaths from that, including a miner a quarter-mile away.
Avoid intact, undetonated explosive charges. Report them to field trip leaders and foreman.
Know blasting schedules before entering. Clubs hardly ever do a field trip when blasting is occurring anyway.
Loud horns are sounded right before blasting – the horns are very distinct.
Water hazards – sumps and conveyance channels.
Most mines extend below the water table. They continually pump groundwater out.
Sumps are where all water collects at low areas. Water is cold, year-round. 55 degrees Fahrenheit temperature. We are never authorized to enter a lake, sump, or conveyance channel in a quarry. Abandoned mine drownings – Ohio leads the country in deaths from that (these deaths are not collectors, however).
Quarries that have been abandoned are generally not safe places to swim. Tell your kids.
Water is stratified – the cold water is below the warmer upper layer.
Weather conditions – heat can be troublesome.
Heat exhaustion can occur. Multiple symptoms. Risk factors – heat index, standing in full sunshine, lack of breeze, insulated clothing, physical exertion, being old, heat-reflecting surfaces, hat/helmet. Make provisions. Bring cooler with ice and towels. Be hydrated before & during visit.
A collector at an Aurora, North Carolina phosphate mine forgot to eat or drink, due to collecting enthusiasm. When it was time to haul fossils out, he took one step & froze up – body cramped up. Had to have others help him out & bring his stuff out.
First aid. Drink lots of fluid. Coffee doesn’t count. Remove unnecessary clothing. Iced towels. Fanning. Lie down with feet elevated, if dizzy. Turn on side, if nauseous.
Heat stroke requires immediate attention. Go to hospital. Are specific symptoms.
Lightning. While at Cardon, a collector on a blast pile had a storm move in. Moved off blast pile. Lightning started striking.
A strike can occur up to 15 miles away from a storm.
If you can hear it – it’s too close.
Direct strikes are not the most frequent cause of lightning deaths (only 3 to 4% of deaths are direct strikes). Most deaths are from ground current within 100 feet of a strike.
Can get horizontal arcing 60 feet away.
If trapped outside in a thunderstorm – don’t lie flat – it increases your chance of electrocution by ground current. Lightning gets conveyed through the metal of a car – that’s what protects you – not the rubber tires.
Don’t start collecting again until 30 minutes after the storm passes (after the last lightning/after the last thunder).
During storms, avoid open areas (floor or bench), avoid water (sumps), avoid metal objects, avoid crawling under big equipment. Crouch down against a rock with feet close together (not far apart), rather than lying down.
Most accidents occur when one is rushed or tired.
Realistically allocate time for trimming, carrying, packing, loading samples.
Don’t keep host waiting past the end time.
Collecting is a privilege. Behave in a way that earns the respect of your host, and an invitation to return.

C.H.A. Guest House, Barton Chase, Marine Drive East, Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire
personal training certification
Image by Alwyn Ladell
Published by Jos. M. Etches.
Postally unused (c.1960s).

See the article by Douglas G Hope, Researcher, here: www.yorkrambling.btck.co.uk/AboutthefounderofCHAHF

In case it vanishes, here is Douglas G Hope’s text:

The legacy of Thomas Arthur Leonard, founder of co-operative and communal holidays and Father of the open-air holiday movement.

Thomas Arthur Leonard, who founded the Co-operative Holidays Association (CHA) in 1893 and the Holiday Fellowship (HF) in 1913, was described on his death in 1948 as the Father of the open-air holiday movement. This article seeks to show that this epitaph is no under-statement.

By common consent, the CHA originated in 1891 when Leonard, Minister of the Dockray Square Congregational Church in Colne, Lancashire, took 32 members of the church’s social guild on a four day’s holiday to Ambleside in the Lake District. Leonard sought to dissuade the young workers of Colne from going in droves during ‘Wakes Week’ to Blackpool, Morecambe or the Isle of Man and introduce them instead to the pleasures of the wilds of Pendle Hill, Ribblesdale and the Lake District. The following photograph of that first holiday group is taken from ‘A Hundred Years of Holidays’ edited by Robert Speake, a long serving CHA Member, and published to celebrate the centenary of the CHA in 1993.

In most references to the origins of the CHA and HF, Leonard is described as the Reverend T A Leonard, a congregational minister from Colne, Lancashire, and the image presented is of an elderly Victorian gentleman. The following photograph is taken from David Hardman’s History of the Holiday Fellowship: 1913-1940, published in 1981, which also appears in Harry Wroe’s more recent Story of HFholidays, published in 2007.

What else do we know about Thomas Arthur Leonard, the man, and of his many achievements?

According to his birth certificate, Leonard was born in Finsbury, London on 12 March 1864, at 50 Tabernacle Walk near John Wesley’s first chapel on City Road, Finsbury. His father was a clock and watchmaker; Finsbury and neighbouring Clerkenwell being centres of clock and watchmaking in the 19th century. His mother was the daughter of the eminent congregational minister, John Campbell, minister at the Whitefields Tabernacle on Tabernacle Row just round the corner. Leonard, therefore, inherited a Congregationalist tradition.

Leonard’s father unfortunately died when he was five years old and the family moved to Hackney, where Leonard’s education included trips to Heidelburg in Germany, an experience which sowed the seed for his interest in International relations. Little is known about this phase of his life but Census Records show that by 1881, the family had moved to Eastbourne, where Leonard’s mother ran a lodging house. Leonard worked as a builder’s clerk and it was at Eastbourne that he met his future wife, Mary Arletta Coupe, a Sunday-school teacher. His leaning towards the congregational church led him to enrol in 1884 at the Congregational Institute in Nottingham, newly established by Dr. John Brown Paton, a pioneer of educational and social reform. Subsequent events confirm that J B Paton’s undoubted influence on Leonard shaped the character of the future CHA and HF.

After 3 years at the Nottingham Institute, Leonard took up his first pastorate at the Abbey Road Congregational Church in Barrow-in-Furness in 1887. At this time, Barrow was expanding fast with widespread squalor, sickness and conflict between migrant communities. Leonard sought to improve the social as well as spiritual conditions of his congregation but struggled to reconcile his faith and ideals with the reality of life in this Victorian boomtown. Church records reveal that he had a few differences of opinion with his deacons, who felt that he was rather too radical. It was at Barrow that he first took his congregation on rambles in the Lake District.

He resigned his post at Barrow-in-Furness at the beginning of 1890 and it was in September of that year that he arrived at Colne. The following June, he took his first holiday party to the Smallwood House Hotel on Compston Road, Ambleside. “It were champion” was the verdict of the thirty-two men who had walked the fells, heard talks on flowers and trees and the contours of the mountain scene, listened to the poetry of Wordsworth, and learned the pleasures of fellowship. The details are described in Leonard’s book Adventures in Holiday Making.

After an equally successful trip to Caernarvon in North Wales in 1892, J B Paton encouraged Leonard to expand his holiday programme under the auspices of the National Home Reading Union (NHRU), which Paton had founded in 1889. “Do it for thousands” he is reported to have said. From 1893, holidays followed to an increasing number of destinations with a voluntary committee with Paton as Chairman and Leonard as Secretary. Holidays under the auspices of the NHRU continued until 1897 when the Co-operative Holidays Association was formally constituted with Paton as President and Leonard as General Secretary.

The objects of the CHA, as set out by T A Leonard were:

To provide simple and strenuous recreative and educational holidays and to promote friendship and fellowship amid the beauty of the natural world.

Leonard has been described as a Christian Socialist and disciple of Matthew Arnold and John Ruskin. There is no doubt that he was influenced by contemporary social and political thought. He gained inspiration from William Morris, Edward Carpenter and Charles Kingsley. The term guest-house for the CHA accommodation, first used when Ardenconnel House near Rhu on the Clyde was purchased in 1898, came from Morris’s News from Nowhere, although the term Gasthaus was in common usage in Germany. Lecturers and guides at CHA centres included leading academics and distinguished professionals such as Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley of Crosthwaite, near Keswick, later founder of the National Trust, who introduced the first parties to the Lake District to the poetry of Wordsworth and the teachings of John Ruskin.

Reflecting Leonard’s philosophy, the CHA’s first purpose-built centre, Moor Gate Guest House, at Hope in the Derbyshire Peak District, opened in 1916, was designed in the Arts and Crafts Style. The house was extensively refurbished in 1991 with the introduction of en-suite facilities and continued to provide all the year round CHA holidays until 1999 when it was sold to Shearings. Now privately owned, and re-named the Losehill House Hotel, it is a luxury hotel and conference centre.

Leonard was also an enthusiastic member of the fledgling Independent Labour Party in the 1890s and knew many of its leading figures. He shared a platform with Keir Hardy at a meeting in Colne in 1894 and advertised holidays in Labour Prophet, a socialist journal established by John Trevor, a Unitarian Minister who founded the Labour Church. Leonard was outspoken at meetings on socialism, betting and liquor reform and the local paper, the Colne and Nelson Times, reported many of his speeches and activities during his time at Colne. In fact, his socialist views once again caused friction with the deacons of his church, although the majority of his congregation strongly supported him.

Leonard resigned his Ministerial post at Colne Congregational Church in 1894 in order to pursue his wider social aspirations. Letters and other contributions to the Colne and Nelson Times illustrate the heart-felt sorrow of many of his congregation at his decision to leave his work at Colne.

Leonard and his wife left Colne on 24 December 1894 “accompanied by the well wishes of a large crowd of townspeople who met them at Colne Station”. Leonard spent 1895 running J B Paton’s first Social Institute in Islington, London, although he did return to Colne on a number of occasions to preach and give speeches in local halls. During 1895, the holiday scheme operated from an office in South Tottenham and in 1896 from the CHA’s first centre at Abbey House, Whitby. However, by 1897, the continued expansion of the holiday programme required a permanent office and so the Co-operative Holidays Association was established as a legal entity.

By 1913, the CHA had thirteen British centres catering for 20,000 guests. Although foreign travel was not one of its original objectives, the CHA experimented with trips to Switzerland, France, Germany and Norway. During this time, Leonard became great friends with J B Paton’s son, John Lewis Paton, who as High Master of Manchester Grammar School was an outstanding educationalist of the Victorian and Edwardian periods. With J L Paton, Leonard organised exchange school trips between Britain and Germany, students and young workers staying at CHA centres.

It came as a great shock to many members of the CHA, when in November 1912, Leonard announced his intention to resign from his post as General Secretary of the CHA and form a new organisation. The reason given by Leonard in his book was his desire to extend the work begun 20 years ago and bring holidays within the reach of poorer folk. Records reveal a growing dis-satisfaction with the General committee’s desire to improve the quality of centres. In his letter of resignation he makes his views clear:

I have been conscious for some time that an important section of the Committee have lacked confidence in my judgement upon certain matters…..The questions upon which my advice has been passed over has reference to the appointment or otherwise of Manageresses, the selection of furnishings, provisioning and other arrangements at the centres.

It may also be that his opinions on British-German relations jarred with the views of some members of the Association. Leonard was a convinced pacifist and supported efforts to prevent the outbreak of the First World War. He became great friends with a number of like-minded labour politicians. Hubert Beaumont, a future Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons in the 1945 Labour Government, was a family friend before the First World War and both Ramsay MacDonald and Philip Snowden (Prime Minister and Chancellor respectively of the Labour Government in the 1920s) were visitors to Leonard’s home at ‘Bryn Corach’ at Conwy in North Wales during World War One. In his book he describes ‘Bryn Corach’ as ‘A haven of peace to many nerve-strained folk from the raided areas and for the soldiers in training and their friends, and not least to those peace-lovers who suffered for their principles in those days’.

Nevertheless, the split with the CHA was reasonably amicable, with the HF taking over the CHA’s centre at Newlands in the Lake District and a centre at Kelkheim in Germany. The objects of the new organisation were similar to those of the CHA but with a greater emphasis on International Relations. There was no thought of competition between the two organisations.

Prior to 1913, Leonard had moved from CHA centre to CHA centre. Leaving Colne in December 1894, he lived in Tottenham, London for a year and then took up residence at Abbey House, Whitby in 1896. The CHA’s office and Leonard moved to Ardenconnel, Rhu in 1899 and then to Park Hall, Hayfield in 1902. When the CHA established its office in Brunswick Street, Manchester in 1908, the Leonard’s took up residence in Marple Bridge, near Stockport. In 1914 he moved to ‘Bryn Corach’, Conwy, the HF’s first headquarters.

Leonard was General Secretary of HF from 1914 until 1925 when HF decided to establish its headquarters in London. He resigned as General Secretary and the post of International Secretary was created for him, a post he occupied from 1925-1930. He then took a back seat, moving from ‘Bryn Corach’ into a nearby cottage, ‘Wayside’ in 1935, but remained on the General Committee. He was elected President of the HF in 1938/39 and was then Vice-President until his death in 1948.

By the time of his death, HF operated some 30 centres with over 45,000 guests. CHA meanwhile had also expanded and operated some 25 guest houses with 30,000 guests. Notwithstanding Leonard’s aim of returning to more Spartan accommodation, the CHA and HF developed in a very similar way with country house accommodation. Throughout the 1960s and 70s, the HF operated some 40 British Centres catering for over 60,000 guests. The CHA, renamed Countrywide Holidays in 1964, operated 25-30 guest houses catering for some 30,000 guests. The following graph shows how the two organisations were seriously affected by changing economic circumstances in the latter part of the twentieth century. Recession and inflation in the 1980s led to a considerable down-sizing of both organisations with the CHA eventually going out of business in 2004 with the sale of its last property, Stanley Ghyll House in Eskdale in the Lake District.

Although Leonard’s involvement with HF declined after 1930, he never rested on his laurels. It’s probably true to say that through the 1920s and 30s, Leonard also became dis-satisfied with the progress of the HF. Minutes reveal him constantly trying to reign-in those who wanted to continually expand and improve the standard of accommodation provided. He pushed for youth centres and Spartan accommodation such as that provided at Wall End Farm in Great Langdale in the Lake District, rather than the country house type of accommodation favoured by the General Committee of HF.

His desire to keep accommodation as simple as possible led him to play a prominent part in the establishment of the Youth Hostels Association. It was at the headquarters of the Liverpool HF Club that the Liverpool & District Branch of the British YHA was set up in December 1929 by Leonard, Harry H Symonds, Tom Fairclough and others. When the YHA was formally founded in April 1930, Leonard became one of its four Vice-Presidents. When he was gifted Goldrill House in Patterdale by HF on his retirement in 1932, he promptly let it to the YHA as one of its first youth hostels.

He was President of the Merseyside Ramblers’ Federation before the establishment of the Ramblers’ Association and chaired the first meeting of the ten Area Ramblers’ Federations held in 1931 to form the National Council of Ramblers’ Federations. He became the National Council’s first Chairman and continued in this role until 1938 when the Ramblers’ Association was formed. He then became the Ramblers’ Association’s first President, a role he held until 1946 when it was taken over by John Dower, the architect of the 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act.

Leonard was connected with a range of other organisations. He strongly supported the National Trust (founded by his close friend, Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley and Octavia Hill), the Footpaths Preservation Society and the Campaign for National Parks. He was a founding member of the Friends of the Lake District in 1934. He was President of the Grey Court Fellowship, founded in 1935 to provide holidays for unemployed workers and their families from North-east Lancashire. They still run a holiday centre near Arnside on Morecambe Bay. He founded the Family Holidays Association after the Second World War, which was formed to convert derelict Government training camps into holiday homes for families. This organisation continued well into the 1960s.

Leonard joined the Society of Friends shortly after the First World War, the absence of a rigid creed and the freedom for intellectual thought which it afforded appeal strongly to him and he was a member of the Colwyn Bay Meeting for almost 30 years. In reaching this decision he might well have been influenced by friends and acquaintances such as Arnold Rowntree, Liberal MP, who championed the cause of conscientious objectors during the First World War. Arnold Rowntree was a prominent Quaker from the famous York confectionary family and was the first President of the Holiday Fellowship.

Leonard was awarded the OBE in the 1937 Coronation Honours for his work in outdoor activities. The extent of his influence on the development of countryside leisure is illustrated by the range of organisations represented at his 80th birthday celebrations held at the Friend’s House in London on 18 March 1944 attended by almost 100 guests.

The attendance book is signed by representatives of the CHA, HF, YHA, Ramblers’ Association, National Trust and the Councils for the Protection of Rural England and Rural Wales. All these organisations owed their existence to some degree to the example set by Leonard. Many of Leonard’s old friends such as Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley and Ramsay MacDonald had died by 1944 but signatories include Lord Woolton, President of CHA, who as Fred Marquis was MD of Lewis’s in Liverpool before World War Two and was Minister for Food during the war (and famous for “Woolton Pie”); Hubert Beaumont, Derbyshire County Councillor between the wars and Labour MP in Ramsay MacDonald’s Government in the 1930s; C E M Joad, an eminent philosophy, ranking alongside Bertrand Russell and George Bernard Shaw, who also visited Leonard at ‘Bryn Corach’; Tom Stephenson, celebrated access campaigner and originator of the Pennine Way; Harry Griffin, journalist and writer, who wrote the Guardian’s Country Diary for 53 years; and John Lewis Paton, son of J B Paton who had such a strong influence on the development of the CHA and HF. Arnold Rowntree, President of HF, was too ill at the time to attend the celebrations but York was represented by Walter Ingleby, President of the York CHA & HF Rambling Club.

In his book, The Englishman’s Holiday published in 1947, J A R Pimlott ranks Leonard alongside Thomas Cook and Billy Butlin as a pioneer of the holiday movement.

A series of photographs taken in 1947, probably for a newspaper article, glorify Leonard’s accomplishments.

When he died he was cremated at a simple Friends Service at Anfield Crematorium in Liverpool. Obituaries appeared in newspapers published all over England, Wales and Scotland. They describe him as at his best and happiest when originating some new venture; a crusader; also a rebel, never reluctant to ‘tilt at windmills’; but also generous and gracious. One obituary states “His fertile imagination, his great powers of persuasion, his friendship and warm heartedness were responsible for the initiation and success of many enterprises which brought joy, happiness, fellowship and comfort to tens of thousands. He sought no personal gain for himself.’

The memorial plaques erected after his death are inscribed with the words: Believing that “The best things any mortal hath are those which every mortal shares”, he endeavoured to promote “Joy in widest commonalty spread”. The first part is taken from a hymn, written by Quaker Lucy Larcom, which was a popular CHA and HF song before the Second World War. The second part is taken from Wordsworth’s poem, ‘The Prelude’. They epitomise Leonard’s approach to holiday making and are still relevant today.

This article has concentrated on Leonard and his many achievements in the field of outdoor recreation. He has been somewhat ignored in recent times, as his vision of simple, affordable and sober holiday-making combined with the quiet enjoyment of the countryside has suffered as a result of increasing consumerism, changing cultural attitudes and expectations, and the search for more adventurous and exciting forms of outdoor recreation. Nevertheless, his promotion of friendship and fellowship in the outdoors remains as relevant today as it was 100 years ago.

His achievements in the outdoor recreation movement are rather under-rated today and I hope, through my research, to put that right.

Douglas G Hope

Researcher

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